配子—胚胎发育源性疾病的研究进展
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[R715.5]

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国家自然科学基金面上项目 (82088102);中国医学科学院医学与健康科技创新工程项目 (2019-I2M-5-064);上海市卫健委协同创新集群项目(2020CXJQ01)


Research advances of gamete and embryo-fetal origins of adult diseases
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    摘要:

    “健康和疾病的发育起源”理论 (Developmental Origins of Health and Disease,DOHaD) 认为,生命早期的不利环境因素导致了成年期慢性疾病的发生。与胚胎、胎儿的宫内发育时期相比,配子的发生和成熟需要几十年的时间, 在较长的暴露时间内更易遭受潜在的损伤并传递给子代,导致子代发生先天性异常和慢性成年期疾病的风险增加,并可存在代际传递效应。表观遗传学修饰是指在不改变核苷酸序列的情况下调控基因的表达,该学说的提出为发育源性疾病的机制探索提供了可能。本文总结了近几年在疾病的配子、胚胎及胎儿起源机制方面取得的研究进展,阐述了表观遗传学机制在其中发挥的重要作用,并进一步强调了于孕前及生命早期进行健康干预的重要性,将疾病的一级预防关口前移至了配子发生及胚胎、胎儿的宫内发育阶段。

    Abstract:

    The Development Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) theory suggests that adverse environmental factors in early life contribute to the development of chronic disease in adulthood. Compared to the intrauterine developmental period of the embryo and fetus, gametes take decades to develop and mature, and are more susceptible to potential damage. Changes in the gametes can be further transmitted to the offspring, leading to an increased risk of congenital anomalies and chronic adult disease in them, and intergenerational transmission effects can exist. Epigenetic modification refers to the regulation of gene expression without altering the nucleotide sequence, and the proposed doctrine offers the possibility of exploring the mechanisms of developmental-derived diseases. This paper summarizes the research progress of the gamete and embryo-fetal origins of diseases, and illustrates the important role of epigenetic mechanisms in this regard, and further emphasizes the importance of health interventions before conception and early in life to shift the primary prevention of diseases to the gametogenesis and intrauterine development of embryos and fetuses.

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  • 在线发布日期: 2023-01-04
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