The unique patterns of epigenetic modifications appear in mammalian oocyte development. Establishment of these modifications, including DNA methylation and histone modifications, is a complicated but highly ordered process, which is crucial in terms of oocyte maturation and early embryo development in mammals. Therefore, dissecting the mechanisms of epigenetic establishment in oocytes is of great significance to look insight into the principles of reproduction and pathogenesis of related diseases. In this review, we delineate the distribution patterns and dynamic landscapes of DNA methylation as well as histone methylation, acetylation, ubiquitination, phosphorylation and lactylation in mammalian oocyte development represented by mice and humans. Meanwhile, we present a summary and discussion in the matter of the potential relevance among these epigenetic modifications, which are regulated by multiple factors related to biological functions.