血小板是体内调控止血功能的重要血细胞。血小板增多症和减少症是常见的血小板相关血液疾病，危害严重。 血小板生成和血小板清除异常是这些疾病发生的主要原因。 目前治疗血小板增多症或减少症的药物多是靶向血小板生成素及其受体介导的胞内信号通路，治疗药物包括重组蛋白、小分子激动剂和抑制剂，以及多肽类药物等等。并且近年来围绕血小板清除机制研制的药物也取得了较佳的临床疗效。本文就目前治疗血小板增多症和减少症各种药物的作用机制以及临床效果等研究进展进行综述。
Platelets are essential blood cells for maintaining hemostasis. Thrombocytopenia and thrombocy‐ themia are common platelet-related blood diseases with serious symptom, such as bleeding and thrombosis. Thrombocytopenic arrest and the abnormal clearance of platelets are the main causes of these diseases. The drugs for the treatment of thrombocytopenia or thrombocythemia are targeting intracellular signaling pathways mediated by thrombopoietin and its receptors. Moreover, the drugs targeting the platelet clearance have also achieved clini‐ cal effects. In this paper, the research progress in the mechanism and clinical effects of various drugs for the treat‐ ment of thrombocytopenia and thrombocythemia were reviewed.